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 Translation of Standard Terms - Polish

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PostSubject: Some Standard Scottish Legal Terms - A to B   Tue Feb 17, 2009 9:14 am

Some more legal terms for translation. Sleep
There is a lot this time so have broken the alphabet down and will post in stages. pale
Usual story, terms in bold on the left and definition in brackets.

Thanks again. queen

Absolvitor (The judgement pronounced when a court assoilzies a party.)

Accountant in Bankruptcy (The administrative supervisor of sequestrations and personal insolvency.)

Accountant of Court (An officer of court who supervises the conduct of judicial factors.)

Accused (A person charged with committing a crime or offence.)

Act and warrant (The interlocutor in sequestration proceedings which confirms the appointment of the trustee)

Action (Proceedings instituted by a person in a civil court.)

Acts of Adjournal (Regulations as to court procedure made by the High Court of Justiciary in criminal law.)

Acts of Sederunt (Acts passed by the Lords of Council and Session relating to civil procedure.)

Ad factum praestandum (For the performance of a certain act.)

Ad fundandam jurisdictionem (For the purpose of founding jurisdiction)

Ad hoc (Referring only to a particular case or to a specified set of circumstances.)

Ad infinitum (Without limit.)

Ad interim (In the meantime.)

Adjudication (An action used to take possession of heritable property, i.e. where a seller of land refuses to give a conveyance to the buyer, or as a means of taking a debtor’s land to satisfy his creditor’s claim for debt.)

Adjust (To alter the written basis of an action or its defence in its early stages.)

Ad litem (For the purposes of this action only.)

Ad longum (At length)

Administration Order (A court order appointing an administrator for a company in financial difficulties but not hopelessly insolvent.)

Adoption (The statutory process whereby the parental rights and duties of natural parents are extinguished and vested in adopters.)

Ad valorem (According to value.)

Ad vitam aut culpam (For life or till fault.)

Advocate (A member of the Scottish Bar.)

Advocate-depute (An advocate appointed by the Lord Advocate to prosecute under his directions, and paid by salary.)

Advocate, Lord (A senior of the Scottish Bar who is the Government’s chief legal adviser in Scottish matters with responsibilities including the prosecution of crime and the drafting of legislation for Scotland.)

Affidavit (A signed statement made on oath. Some cases which come before the Court can be dealt with by affidavit evidence. This is basically a sworn statement which the Court has regard to and means witnesses don’t have to turn up. It saves a good deal of time but can only be used in certain types of case (where there is no real dispute) as a written statement cannot be cross-examined.)

Aliment (Support or maintenance of a spouse or child enforceable by law.)

Allocated to a Roll (Assigned to a particular court and Judge / Sheriff)

Animus (Will or intention)

Appearance (The formal act whereby the defender in an action intimates his intention to defend.)

Arrestment (Legal attachment of money or moveable property in the hands of a third party.)

Articles of Roup (Conditions of sale by auction.)

Assignation (The transfer of a right from one party to another.)

Assize (In Scotland this word is occasionally and formally used to mean a jury.)

Assoilzie (Criminal - to acquit or find not guilty; Civil - to find for the defender/respondent.)

Auditor of Court (A person charged with the duty of examining accounts. The Auditors of the Court of Session and Sheriff Courts respectively examine and are said to “tax” accounts of expenses incurred by parties in civil actions in the respective courts.)

Aver (To state or allege.)

Avizandum (Judgement deferred (verbal or written decision to be given later).)

Like a Star @ heaven Like a Star @ heaven

Bail (In criminal proceedings an arrangement for the release of an accused person pending trial or sentence formerly requiring a deposit of money subject to forfeiture but under recent statutory provisions replaced in most cases by a conditional release subject to penalties.)

Bond and Disposition in Security (Mortgage secured over real (heritable) property.)

Bond of Caution (Where the Court appoints someone to act on behalf of another (judicial factors etc.) it requires that they put up some cash (the bond) so that they will act properly. If they don’t those who are disadvantaged have something there to recompense them. Note - ‘Caution’ is pronounced to rhyme with station.)

Books of Adjournal (The books or records of the Justiciary Office.)

Books of Council and Session (A popular title for the Registers of Deeds and Probative Writs in which, according to the directions they contain, deeds, etc., may be registered for preservation or preservation and execution.)

Books of Sederunt (Records of the Acts of Sederunt in the Court of Session.)

Brevitatis causa (For the sake of brevity)

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PostSubject: Re: Translation of Standard Terms - Polish   Tue Mar 03, 2009 12:44 pm

I'd like to go back to medical terms.

Withdrawal symptom - well, I think it's rather 'zamknięcie się w sobie' than 'ustąpienie objawów' according to the description on the list of English terms. 'Ustąpienie objawów' would be 'symptoms withdrawal'.
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PostSubject: Further Standard Court Terms   Tue Mar 24, 2009 8:47 am

Caution (Security)

Caveat (“Warning”. A legal document lodged in court by a party so that no order or ruling affecting him passes in his absence or without his receiving prior notice.)

Circuit Court (The court held by the judges of the High Court of Justiciary when they sit other than in Edinburgh.)

Cite / Citation ((i) To summon to court, whether of party, witness, or juror. (ii) To refer in argument to some authority such as a statute or decided case.)

Cognitionis causa tantum (An action raised by creditor of a deceased debtor for purpose of constituting his debt against the estate.)

College of Justice (A formal name of the Court of Session. The College of Justice includes advocates, solicitors, court staff and others, as well as the judges.)

Commissary (Relating to establishing the succession rights and disposal of a deceased persons estate.)

Commissary Court (The Court which grants a title to Executors or Administrators.)

Complaint (A document instituting summary (minor) criminal proceedings in a sheriff or district court setting out the offence charged.)

Compearance (The appearance of a Defender.)

Conclusion (The conclusion in a Court of Session summons is the statement of the precise order sought. To conclude for is to claim in this fashion.)

Condescendence (A printed or written statement in an action setting forth the grounds of action of the Pursuer.)

Confirmation nominate (The title of the Executor (Testate = where there exists a will).)

Confirmation dative (The title of the Executor (Intestate = where there is no will).)

Consignation (The deposit in court or with a third party under court authority of money or an article in dispute.)

Consistorial (Relating to family matters - It Is derived from consistorium, the place where the Emperor’s council met. The bishops used it for their courts and thence the adjective consistorial came to be used as descriptive of the court of the commissaries and of the court of the commissaries and of the actions which were tried there. In modern use, as applied to actions, it has been narrowed down to mean actions between husband and wife or parent and child which involve status.)

Counsel (In Scotland a member of the Faculty of Advocates practising at the Bar.)

Courtesy (The estate which the husband has for life in the real estate left by his wife.)

Creditor (A person to whom another person (or debtor) is obliged in some monetary or other obligation.)

Curator (A person either entitled by law or appointed by the court or an individual to administer the estate of another, as of a young or insane person. Commonly mispronounced curator.)

Criminal Appeals / Justiciary Appeals (Criminal appeals result from summary (less serious) work. Justiciary appeals result from solemn work.)

Curator ad litem (A person appointed by the court to look after the interests of a party to proceedings who is under legal disability but has no guardian.)

Curator bonis (The person appointed by the court to manage the estate of a young person in place of his legal guardian or to manage the estate of an adult suffering from mental or less commonly, bodily infirmity.)

Curatory / Judicial Factor Accounts (Where people are too young, or infirm, to look after their own (financial) affairs they have someone appointed to do so (a curator or judicial factor). These appointments are made by the Court and those appointed have to account for their intermission on the estate of the ‘incapax’)

Custody Order (now known as a “Residence Order”)

Cy Pres (Approximation: as near as possible)

Debate (Intermediate step in procedure which can result in the conclusion of a civil case prior to proof proceeding.)

Debtor (A person obliged to pay some monetary or other obligation to another (the creditor).)

Decern (An extremely formal verb meaning to give final decree or judgement, formerly but no longer necessary to warrant the issue of extract (copy of) the judgement.)

Decree (The common term for a final judgement. (The word as a term of art is accented on the first syllable). Thus decree arbitral, the decision of an arbiter; decree conform, a decree given by the Court of Session in aid of a lower court to enable diligence to be done.)

Decrees in Absence (Applications to the court dealt with by the Sheriff in his chambers in the “absence” of opposition thereto,)

De facto (According to the fact: in point of fact.)

Defences (The statement by way of defence lodged by the defender being the party against whom a civil action is brought. The plural signifies, presumably, that the defender may rely on more legal answers than one.)

Defender (A person who disputes the claim of the pursuer and lodges defences.)

De fideli administratione (Of faithful administration (This phrase is used to describe an oath perhaps to a translator for a witness).)

De jure (According to law, or in point of law.)

De novo (Of new)

De plano (Immediately, summarily, without attention to forms.)

Diet (The date for hearing of a case for any one of a variety of purposes, fixed by the court.)

Diligence (Execution against debtors; also a process for procuring the recovery of writings from an opponent or third party or for obtaining the evidence of witnesses before a commissioner.)

Discharge (Release)

Dispone (To grant transfer or alienate- applied usually to heritage.)

District Court (The court in each district or island area dealing with the most minor criminal offences and replacing the burgh or magistrates courts as existing before the local government reorganisation in 1975.)

Eik to confirmation (Title of Executor to additional estate)

Eodem die (eo die) (The same day.)

Et sequentes paginae [Et seq] (And following pages.)

Evidence Led (When a trial (either summary or solemn) calls in Court it will either –
(a) proceed (evidence will be led by the Crown and the Defence);
(b) Evidence will be partly led and the trial continued to another date;
(c) The trial may be adjourned to another date for some reason (with no evidence led); or
(d) it may be disposed of either the Crown no longer proceeds or a plea to the charge is accepted.)

Executor dative (Executor appointed by the Court.)

Executor nominate (Executor named in a Will.)

Ex facie (On the face of it; evidently)

Ex officio (As holder of a particular office or appointment.)

Exoner (To discharge of liability. Thus a judicial factor may seek exoneration and discharge at the hands of the court.)

Ex parte (Proceedings are ex parte when the party against whom they are brought is not heard, e.g. in interdict proceedings an interim interdict may be granted ex parte.)

Expede Confirmation (To lodge the necessary documents in court and to obtain a Grant of Confirmation in favour of an Executor of Administrator)

Ex post facto (From something done afterwards.)

Ex proprio motu (In the court’s or judge’s own initiative.)

Ex tempore (At the time. e.g. an ex tempore judgement - given there and then.)

Extract (A written instrument singed by the proper officer, containing a statement of a decree and if necessary, a warrant to charge the debtor and to execute all competent diligence against person or property. To extract is to procure this instrument.)

Extract Decree / Copy Interlocutor (Each step of an Ordinary Action (one other than a summary cause or small claim) is recorded in an interlocutor. It is a short summary of what has happened to the case each time it comes before the Sheriff. A copy of the interlocutor is enough in some instances to carry out the order of the Court (what the Sheriff had decided). An extract decree is required where an interlocutor would not do and a more formal document is required.)

Extra-judicial (The word today occurs perhaps most often in the expression extra-judicial expenses, meaning expenses incurred out with the normal course of judicial proceedings and as such not normally recoverable by a successful party from his opponent.)
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PostSubject: More Legal Terms for Translation   Mon Mar 30, 2009 8:04 am


Feu duty (Perpetual ground rent.)

Fiar (The person entitled to the fee of say Land or Securities which may be liferented by another.)

Fiat ut petitur (Let it be done as prayed for.)

First Deliverance (First order in proceedings. Term normally used for liquidations, sequestrations and other civil matters)

Forum non conveniens (being applied to a court which although having jurisdiction is not the appropriate court for the matter in issue..)

Fund in medio (The property or money in the hands of the holder of the fund in an action of multiplepoinding.)

Germane (Of full blood; born or deceased of the same father and mother.)


Habili modo (In the manner competent.)

Heirs in mobilibus (Nearest heirs including representatives of predeceasers entitled to succeed to moveable estate as opposed to heritage.)

Heritable Estate/Property (The term for property in the form of land and houses.)

Holograph Writ (A deed or writing written entirely by the grantor.
Where printed or otherwise mechanically produced or written by another the grantor may “adopt as Holograph” which has the same effect as if wholly written by the grantor.)
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PostSubject: Note Re Training Available   Tue Mar 31, 2009 9:15 am


Please contact Jenny at the office if you would like to attend.
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PostSubject: Re: Translation of Standard Terms - Polish   Sun May 10, 2009 7:36 am

AgaLutka wrote:
Wheeze oddychać chrapliwie, rzezić
Withdrawal symptom ustąpienie objawów

Withdrawal symptom - to po prostu "objaw odstawienny", nazywany też "objawem odstawienia".
A w tym kontekscie to "wycofanie społeczne"

Last edited by Paulina Duncan on Sun May 10, 2009 9:07 am; edited 1 time in total
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PostSubject: Re: Translation of Standard Terms - Polish   Sun May 10, 2009 7:43 am

stoda wrote:
AgaLutka wrote:

Sore/soreness bol, bolesny, obolaly, bolacy
Stupor otepienie, oslupienie

I think we should be more precise when suggesting the terms. If we have an English term - Sore/soreness we should not cheerfully put in what we found on the Internet. That's why I suggest only obolały/bolesność. I know that it will depend on the context but at least we have it simple.

As far as stupor - I do not think 'osłupienie' is a medical term.

Polish psychiatry uses both "stupor" and "osłupienie"
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PostSubject: Re: Translation of Standard Terms - Polish   Sun May 10, 2009 10:17 am

agava wrote:
High Court of Justiciary - Sąd Najwyższy
Sheriff Court - sąd okręgowy
District Court - sąd rejonowy
Lord Advocate - adwokat główny (?)
Procurator Fiscal - prokurator
Accused - oskarżony
Defence Agent - adwokat oskarżonego
Clerk - urzędnik sądowy

Sheriff Court - sąd szeryfa (see: Sąd okręgowy in back-translation would be "county court". See also A Textbook of Translation by P. Newark[/b]: "The political and social life of a country is reflected in its institutional terms. (...) When a public body has a "transparent" name (...) the title is transferred and, where approprate, literally translated."(p.99)
There is no need of "naturalising" the term while "szeryf" is a commonly used word in Polish.

Lord Advocate - Prokurator Generalny, of course.
Procurator Fiscal - prokurator okręgowy
Defence Agent - obrońca oskarżonego. N.B. There is a difference between "adwokat" and "obrońca". "Obrońca" represents his/her client in criminal court. (Obrońca jest procesowym przedstawicielem (reprezentantem) oskarżonego. Tylko adwokat może reprezentować klienta w sprawach karnych, jednak zawód adwokata nie polega jedynie na reprezentowaniu klientów w sądzie lecz obejmuje szeroko pojętą pomoc prawną taką jak:
Udzielanie porad prawnych,
Sporządzanie opinii prawnych,
Opracowywanie projektów aktów prawnych,
Występowanie przed sądami,
Występowaniu przed urzędami.)

Clerk - sekretarz, np. Sheriff Clerk - sekretarz sądu
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PostSubject: Re: Translation of Standard Terms - Polish   Sun May 10, 2009 11:04 am

eff wrote:
Common Law - prawo zwyczajowe

"prawo zwyczajowe" means "customary law" in English and it's based on custom.

"common law" is based on precedent ("precedens").

Therefore, "common law" is usually referred to in Polish as "prawo powszechne" but it's very often left untranslated.
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PostSubject: Re: Translation of Standard Terms - Polish   Sun May 10, 2009 11:08 am

eff wrote:
Statutory Law - prawo pisane (?)

Statutory Law - prawo stanowione as opposed to "common law". Also: "prawo ustawowe".
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